BY | May 18, 2009

housesparrowUniversally familiar in appearance, the widespread and once abundant house sparrow has become a mystery bird and is becoming increasingly rare all over the world. Perky and bustling, house sparrows have always been seen, mingling with finches in the fields in autumn and winter, but now weeks pass without a single one putting in an appearance. 

They are vanishing from many big cities, but are still not uncommon in small towns and villages. India has seen a massive decline of sparrows in recent years. On the world map too. Once a commonplace bird in large parts of Europe, its numbers are decreasing. In the Netherlands, the House Sparrow is even considered an endangered species. Their recent decline has earned them a place on the Red List in the Netherlands. Similar precipitous drops in population have been recorded in the United Kingdom. French ornithologists have charted a steep decline in Paris and other cities. There has been an even sharper fall in the urban areas in Germany, the Czech Republic, Belgium, Italy and Finland. 
History 
It is thought that the House sparrow originated in the Mediterranean and expanded into Europe with the growth of civilization. At the insistence of man did the sparrow make its way across the Atlantic to the United States. In 1850, green inch worms were destroying trees in New York City’s Central Park. As the house sparrow’s main diet in England consisted of the same green worms, it was thought that if sparrows were brought to New York City they would solve the worm problem in Central Park. Others thought the sparrow would eliminate crop pests. housesparrow2
The first introduction of the sparrow was conducted by the Brooklyn Institute in 1851. Eight pairs were originally released but none were able to survive the change in climate. More attempts were made and eventually the birds adapted to a colder climate and multiplied. The sparrow rapidly spread across the United States. The abundance of spilled grain used for feeding horses and the artificial nesting cavities provided by humans helped the sparrow along. They successfully followed humans to many parts of the world- North and South America, Southern Africa, Australia and New Zealand. 
Food 
The house sparrow is an intelligent bird that has proven to be adaptable to most situation, i.e. nest sites, food and shelter, so it has become the most abundant songbird in the world. 
Sparrows are very social birds and tend to flock together through most of the year. A flock’s range covers 1.5-2 miles, but it will cover a larger territory if necessary when searching for food. The sparrow’s main diet consists of grain seeds, especially waste grain and live stock feed. If grain is not available, its diet is very broad and adaptable. It also eats weeds and insects, especially during the breeding season. The parasitic nature of the house sparrow is quite evident as they are avid seekers of garbage tossed out by humans. In spring, flowers (especially those with yellow colours) are often eaten crocuses, primroses and aconites seem to attract the house sparrow most. The birds also hunt butterflies. 
Housing
House sparrows are generally attracted to buildings for roosting, nesting, and cover. They look for any man-made nook or cranny to build their nests. Other nesting sites are clothes line poles with the end caps open, lofts, kitchen garden etc. The sparrow makes its home in areas closely associated with human habitation. 
Taxonomy 

The House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) is a member of the old world sparrow family Passeridae. Some consider it to be a relative of the Weaver Finch Family. A number of geographic races have been named, and are differentiated on the basis of size and cheek colour. Cheeks are grey in the west and white in the east. The shade of the colouration, particularly of the chestnut area in the males is also considered. Birds of the western hemisphere are larger than those in the tropical South Asian populations. 

In India, it is popularly known as Goraiya in the Hindi belt. In Tamil Nadu and Kerala it is known as Kuruvi. Telugu language has given it a name, Pichhuka, Kannadigas call it Gubbachchi, Gujaratis call it Chakli where as Maharashtrians call it Chimani. It is known as Chiri in Punjab, Chaer in Jammu and Kashmir, Charai Pakhi in West Bengal, and Gharachatia in Orissa. In Urdu language it is called Chirya while Sindhi language has termed it as Jhirki. 
Features 
This 14 to 16 cm long bird has a wing span of 19-25 cms. It is a small, stocky song bird that weighs 26 to 32 grams. The male sparrow has a grey crown, cheeks and underparts, and is black at the throat, upper breast and between the bill and eyes. The bill in summer is blue-black and the legs are brown. In winter the plumage is dulled by pale edgings, and the bill is yellowish brown. The female has no black coloring on the head or throat, or a grey crown her upper part is streaked with brown. The juveniles are deeper brown, and the white is replaced by buff the beak is dull yellow. The House Sparrow is often confused with the smaller and more slender Tree Sparrow, which, however, has a chestnut and not grey crown, two distinct wing bars and a black patch on each cheek
The sparrow’s most common call is a short and incessant, slightly metallic cheep, chirrup. It also has a double call note- phillip wherein originated the now obsolete name of “phillip sparrow”. While the young are in their nests, the older birds utter a long churr. At least three broods are reared in the season. 
Reproduction
The nesting sites are varied – in holes in buildings or rocks, in ivy or creepers, on houses or riverbanks, on sea-cliffs or in bushes in bays and inlets. When built in holes or ivy, the nest is an untidy litter of straw and rubbish, abundantly filled with feathers. Large well- constructed domed nests are often built when the bird nests in trees or shrubs, especially in rural areas. 
The House Sparrow is quite aggressive in usurping the nesting sites of other birds, often forcibly evicting the previous occupants, and sometimes even building a new nest directly on top of another active nests with live nestlings. Eggs are variable in size and shape as well as markings. Eggs are incubated by the female. The sparrow has the shortest incubation period of all the birds, 10 -12 days, and a female can lay 25 eggs each summer. The reproductive success increases with age and this is mainly by changes in timing, with older birds breeding earlier in the season. 
Causes of Decline 
There are various causes for dramatic decrease in their population, one of the more surprising being the introduction of unleaded petrol, the combustion of which produces compounds such as methyl nitrite, a compound which is highly toxic for small insects, which forms a major part of a young sparrow’s diet. Other being areas of free growing weeds, or reduction in number of badly maintained buildings, which are important nesting opportunities for sparrows. Ornithologists and wildlife experts speculate that the population crash could also be linked to a variety of factors like the lack of nesting sites in modern concrete buildings, disappearing kitchen gardens, increased use of pesticides in farmlands and the non- availability of food sources. 
K.S. Gopi Sunder of the Indian Cranes and Wetlands Working Group says: “Although there is no concrete evidence or study to substantiate the phenomenon, the population of house sparrows has definitely declined over the past few years”. He attributes this to a number of reasons. The widespread use of chemical pesticides in farmlands has resulted in the killings of insects on which these birds depend. “Seed-eating birds like sparrows have to depend on soft- bodied insects to feed their young ones,” he said. The other possibility could be increased predation by crows and cats, while crows have grown in number as a result of garbage accumulation in the city. 
According to Dr. V. S Vijayan of the Coimbatore-based Salim Ali Centre for Ornithology and Natural History, though the avian species can still be spotted over two-thirds of the world’s land surface, “ironically, there has been a rapid decline in the population of these once abundant birds”. Changing lifestyles and architectural evolution have wreaked havoc on the bird’s habitat and food sources. Modern buildings are devoid of eaves and crannies, and coupled with disappearing home gardens, are playing a part in the disappearing act. 
Today one misses the sight of sparrows hopping from branch to branch in the bushes outside one’s house and their chirping. One is taken back to well known Hindi Writer Mahadevi Verma’s Story ‘Goraiya’ – eating grains from her hands, jumping on her shoulders and playing hide and seek. Today one wishes that the Goriya does not remain confined in the pages of Mahadevi Verma’s story but comes back to our cities as ever before. 

By: Kalpana Palkhiwala

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  • Sharma Om Prakash

    Dear Sir,

    It is true but deep pain in the history of the human organization.
    On the time in 1960 I have seen the house sparrow were common, but not now. In my old village we the children at that time think that the sparrow were very nice and good bird. But now they are not seen any more in my village.
    But I started working in the Abu Dhabi and Dubai cities in 1980. Now I noticed that the house sparrow were growing rapidly and they ever increased so much that I have noticed they are local birds.

    In India we need to protect them from the enemy of the sparrow. They were not eaten by the crow but now I noticed that crow can eat the house sparrow regularly. Many incident I have see that they are so afraid to go near the other birds also. I don ‘ t know why this changes took placed in the crow behaviors.

    I wanted to provide the protection t o the house sparrow by building the small house for sparrows in my home.

    Thanks

  • Dr P.S.Rao.

    There was a time when there were plenty of sparrows in Vijayawada Andhrapradesh. But for the past few decates their spotting has become a rarity.Some people are still reporting seeing them I request anyone sighting the birds to please leave a few shoe boxes with hay and a lil water for them to grow.
    Thank You

  • http://nandaandsowmya.blogspot.com/ HK Nandakumar

    Dear sir
    it is true that these sparrow have become very rare in urban area.
    but one can still see them in rural part of india. especially in northern india where grains are grown.
    i live in a small town in rajasthan called suratgarh. i can cay i have a bird nest in my house and outside also i can see millions of these birds.
    thanks to mother nature and less pollution in this part of country.

  • karthick ooty

    dear sir
    this is true ,this is a major issue because passer domesticus is also one of the member in ecosystem.we also the culprits we only responce for their decrese
    thank you

  • vidhi hajela

    dear sir
    sub:working on the major problem ” declining population of goriya bird .”
    there were times when our ancestors use to sing songs like chuchu karti aai chidiya daal ka dana lai chidiya but gone are those days when these songs were reallity of daily life now those chidiyas have gone far away and very few of them are left .
    recently when my father visited europe he found that plenty of indian birds have migrated to europe where they have no fear from human life and they eat food from their hands also .
    for indians its high time when people need to join hands and work on bringing back those old golden days when chirping of bird was essence of life and which gave mental peace also.i vidhi hajela is working on a project in inodre and creating goriya park which can be done in other parts of the india also to bring bac our house bird to its own nation from where it has flown away far away.
    for making my project a success contact me on 9165400054

  • Barry H.

    I live in upstate NY and have experienced something unusual this year, regarding the English sparrow.

    For
    the last twenty years, I have put up two to four bluebird houses and
    have always dealt with the problem of house sparrows competing with the
    BBs for nesting space. I know this is a common problem. The sparrows
    are relentless and will build nest after nest if the nest is removed. I
    cleaned four nests out of one house in one day! I started throwing the
    eggs out and they would lay clutch after clutch of eggs on a daily
    basis. I considered making omelettes! I found the best remedy is to
    let the eggs sit for about a week, then throw them out and the pair
    would finally abandon the nest. They have broken the eggs of the
    bluebirds and even killed one of the adult bluebirds.

    Mysteriously,
    I have not had one sparrow in any of my four houses this year. I have
    not even seen or heard a HS in my yard. This has NEVER occurred. I do
    have a nesting pair of BBs as usual. Last year, I did have a pair of
    sparrows raise young in one of the houses ( I let the eggs sit too long), which makes it even more unusual that none of them returned.

    I
    have investigated online and discovered there has been a decline of the
    HS population in the UK, their native habitat, but have found nothing
    about a population decline in the US.

    I have noticed that I don’t see as many HSs in other environments around here.